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144                                    FLORA  INDICA.
which the mountain Parasnath (an isolated peak) rises sud-
denly to au elevation of 4500 feet,, is 1200 feet high. Paras-
nath is the higfier, known elevation in the province, though
perhaps in the, unknown districts to the westward the hills
may rise as high or higher.
The flat-topped spurs of the Vindhia sink abruptly into the
valley of the S6n, which is bounded on the west by a line of
cliffs rising 1000 feet or more above the bed of the river.
Further east, the elevation is less considerable, and the table-
land is broken up into a rugged hilly country, the last spurs
of which approach close to the Ganges at Monghir, Bhogilpur,
and B/ajmahal.
The climate of Bahar resembles that, of the interior of
Orissa. During the south-west monsoon, from June to Oc-
tober, there is a moderate rain-fall, the amount of which has
nowhere been determined with accuracy. Throughout the
remainder of the year the province is very arid, and subject
to hot winds, which blow over it from the dry plains of Raj-
wai*a and the upper Gangetic valley. At the same time, per-
haps from the gentle slope, and consequent imperfect drain-
age in a densely .wooded country, the forests (like those of
Orissa) are extremely unhealthy, even in the dry season, so
that Europeans cannot penetrate into their recesses, except at
the height of the cold season,, without great risk to life.
In all parts of the mountain districts of Bahar the open
valleys arc more or less cultivated, but, with rare exceptions,
the soil is poor and the population scanty, and the crops very
indifferent. The surface of the platforms between the valleys,
when level, is often rocky and bare, but, when undulating, is
covered with bush jungle, in which, bamboo is very abun-
dant. The steep slopes of the hills are covered with dense
forest. The flora is very similar to that of the hills which
form the eastern Ghats between the Carnntic and Mysore, or
to that of the drier slopes of the central Himalaya,
Cedrela Tootia, Vatica robmta, Bucfianania, Semecarpu$
Camu Fistula, Butea frondonq and parwflvra,